John B. Morgan


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John B. Morgan was born about 1815 in Scotland and died November 14, 1868, in Montana Territory at age 53. He is the son of Unknown. He was killed by a band of Sioux Indians.

Snake Woman was born Unknown and died Unknown. She is the daughter of Unknown.

John B. Morgan and Snake Woman may not have been married.

John B. Morgan and Snake Woman had two children:

  1. Mary Morgan: Born about 1861 in Blackfeet Indian Reservation, Glacier Co., Montana Territory; Died Unknown. Adopted in 1864 by Charley Choquette. Married 1879 in Montana Territory to Raphael Morgan: Born Unknown; Died Unknown.
  2. Kitty Morgan: Born about 1862 in Blackfeet Indian Reservation, Glacier Co., Montana Territory; Died Unknown. Married to Unknown Blanchard: Born Unknown;; Died Unknown. Lived in Cut Bank, MT.

John B. Morgan then married Catherine Armelle.

Catherine "Rosa" Armelle was born Unknown and died 1868 in Montana Territory. She is the daughter of Augustin or August Hamel or Hamell or ARMELLE Jr. of Canada (born 17787/1800 in Canada; Died about 1859/1860 in Yankton, Yankton Co., South Dakota) and Mrs. Bird or Hawk Woman ARMEL (Born 1801 in Blackfeet Indian Reservation, Glacier Co., MT; Died after 1869 in Montana).

John B. Morgan and Catherine Armelle were married about 1862 in Washington Territory.

John B. Morgan and Catherine (Armelle) Morgan had three children:

  1. William Morgan: Born March, 1862, in Montana Territory; Died 1900 - 1910 in Montana. Married 1885 in Montana Territory to Nettie Mann: Born September 1868 in Montana Territory; Died 1935 in Montana (about age 67).
  2. Henry Norton Morgan: Born January 6, 1863, in Fort Benton, Chouteau Co., Montana Territory; Died August 2, 1957, in a nursing home in Missoula, Missoula Co., MT (age 94). Married August 27, 1885, in Montana to Ophia Ufrates "Opha" Rider: Born March 5, 1870, in Valparaiso, Sanders Co., NE; Died January 2, 1943, at her home in Ovando, Powell Co., MT (age 72).
  3. John F. Morgan: Born April, 1867, in Blackfeet Indian Reservation, Glacier Co., Montana Territory; Died after 1900 in Unknown. Married December 13, 1891, in Piegan, Choteau Co., Montana Territory, to Lucy "Pretty Blanket Woman" Cranky: Born January 1876 in Montana Territory; Died after 1912 in Unknown.

Father N. Congiato — at this time the Superior of the Rocky Mountain Missions — visited Fort Benton next, as we find him here September 2, 1858, baptizing four half-breed children. The place is called by him in the register of those baptisms Fort Campbell. The following year, 1859, we find at Fort Benton Father De Smet, who, August 1, gave holy baptism to eight half-breed children and to some Indians also, and on the next day, August 2, married two couples. The contracting parties of the first couple were Clement Cornoyer and Mary Champagne; of the second, J. Morgan and Rose Masero, the witnesses in both cases being Col. J. Vaughn, A. Dawson and Francis Cabanne. The latter marriage, however, was found soon after to have been null and a sacrilege, as Morgan had another wife living at the time. This is declared in a note in Father Giorda's own hand appended subsequently to the record of that attempted marriage.


HISTORY OF WASHINGTON, IDAHO, AND MONTANA, 1845-1889, Hubert Howe Bancroft

THE VIGILANTES OF MONTANA

The last offenders who were executed by the Vigilance Committee of Virginia City were two horse thieves and confessed road agents, named, according to their own account. John Morgan and John Jackson alias Jones. They were, however, of the "alias" tribe. The former was caught in the act of appropriating a horse in one of the city corrals. He was an old offender, and on his back were the marks of the whipping he received in Colorado for committing an unnatural crime. He was a low, vicious ruffian. His comrade was a much more intelligent man, and acknowledged the justice of his sentence without any hesitation. Morgan gave the names and signs of the gang they belonged to, of which Rattlesnake Dick was the leader. Their lifeless bodies were found hanging from a hay-frame, leaning over the corral fence at the slaughter-house, on the branch, about half a mile from the city. The printed manifesto of the Vigilantes was affixed to Morgan's clothes, with the warning words written across it, "Road Agents, beware !"



John Morgan, died September, 1865, near Virginia City, Madison Co., Montana Territory.

John Jackson (John Jones), died September, 1865, near Virginia City, Madison Co., Montana Territory.
 
 


The last offenders who were executed by the Vigilance Committee of Virginia City were two horse thieves and confessed road agents, named, according to their own account, John Morgan and John Jackson, alias Jones. They were, however, of the “alias” tribe. The former was caught in the act of appropriating a horse in one of the city corrals. He was an old offender, and on his back were the marks of the whipping he received in Colorado for committing an unnatural crime. He was a low, vicious ruffian. His comrade was a much more intelligent man, and acknowledged the justice of his sentence without any hesitation. Morgan gave the names and signs of the gang they belonged to, of which Rattlesnake Dick was the leader. Their lifeless bodies were found hanging from a hay-frame, leaning over the corral fence at the slaughter-house, on the branch, about half a mile from the city. The printed manifesto of the Vigilantes was affixed to Morgan's clothes, with the warning words written across it, “Road Agents, beware!”

In September, 1865, nine months after Justice Hosmer’s speech, a public notice was posted in Virginia City announcing the revival of the vigilance committee there and vowing “to inflict summary judgment upon any and all malefactors in any case where the civil authorities are unable to enforce the proper penalty of law.” Lynchings in Virginia City resumed a few days later when two suspected horse thieves, John Morgan and John Jackson, were found one morning dangling from the frame of the corral at a slaughterhouse. By the end of 1865, the death toll from vigilante justice in Montana had reached thirty-five.


The book Blackfeet Heritage (1907-1908) lists all Blackfeet people that received land allotments. Within this book is a listing for “John Morgan”; ¼ Piegan age 42 years; Son of John B. Morgan and Catherine Morgan. Catherine is listed as a ½ Piegan. Within John’s siblings is listed a full brother “Harry Morgan” and a half sister Mary Morgan. 

John Morgan ¼ Piegan 42 years

Father: John B. Morgan, white deceased. Parents unknown

Mother: Catherine Morgan, ½ piegan, deceased. Parents (See Margaret Deschamps).

Maternal Uncles and Aunts: (See Henry No Bear, Louis Marcereau).

Brothers and Sisters: Harry Morgan, full brother; Mary Morgan, half sister; John B. Morgan had a child by a Snake Woman, this child is Kittie Blanchard, living in Cut Bank. She is half sister to John Morgan; William Morgan, full brother died leaving Nellie Morgan, Lizzie Morgan, Wilbert Morgan, Claude Morgan and Robert Morgan.****

Wife: Lucy Morgan (Pretty Blanket Woman). 35 years. Full Piegan. Married 19 years ago by the priest at Old Agency.

Father: Sleeping Wolf, deceased. Parents unknown.

Mother: Calf Woman deceased. Parents unknown.

Paternal uncles and aunts: The Horn, brother.

Brothers and sisters: Sam Middle Calf and Red Fox, half brothers; First Strike, wife of Wolf Plume, half sister; Lone Pertrified(sp) Rock, wife of the Fish.

Children: David, born Oct 18, 1891; Joseph, born Jun 2, 1894; Mary born May 4, 1893; Virginia, born April 22, 1901; Irene, born July 31, 1907; Cecile, born Jan 24, 1910.

Lives on Two Medicine. Gate keeper at Cut Bank Creek.

**** May 30, 1909: Mother of the Morgan children now married to Jack (John) MacDonald and living in Cut Bank. Mille is married and Lizzie is married and living in Genoa. Wilbert Morgan is at Chemawa, Oregon. (Vince: from reading this a few times I get this as discussing the wife and kids of John Morgan’s dead brother William Morgan.)

Mary Morgan ½ Gros Ventre 46 Years

Father: George Wippert, deceased. Parents unknown

Mother: Unknown, died when Mary was a baby.

Brothers and Sisters: Isaac Wippert, half brother; Mary Ann Wippert Hicks, wife of whiteman, Fed Hicks, lives in Spokane, is a half sister; Belle Wippert Baker, wife of Frank Baker, a whiteman, is a half sister; these were children of George Wippert from a Piegan Woman. (See Isaac Wippert for child of Millie, a full sister of Mary Morgan).

Husband: Raphael Morgan, whiteman, 55 years.

Children: George Morgan, single, 26 yrs; Jesse J. Morgan, 24 yrs, married to a white woman; Elizabeth Steele, 22 years, married to Clay Steele, lives at Spokane; Louis Morgan, 21 yrs; Nellie Agnes Morgan, 19 yrs; Fannie Morgan, 16 yrs; Albert Morgan, 13 yrs; Agnes Morgan, 11 yrs; Katie Morgan, 10 yrs; William Morgan 7 yrs; and Raphael Morgan, 5 yrs.

Mary’s mother was a Grox Ventre and after her death was adopted by Charley Choquette (*See Robert Armstrong), a whiteman married to a Blood woman. He lived at Choteau and about 20 years ago moved onto the Blackfeet Reservation. Mary was 19 years old when she married Raphael Morgan at Choteau. They moved to Birch Creek in April 1891. They have lived there ever since. Their land is about 2 miles south of Birch Creek. Raphael, Mary, George and Jesse each had a desert land claim of 220 acres. They now have about 2200 acres all proved and patented.

Mary attended the Government School at Choteau until her marriage. Her first 3 children were educated at Fort Shaw and the first 5 then went to Holy Family Mission for another term. Albert, Katie, Agnes and William now go to public school. Mary received issue from the government at Fort Benton tad at Choteau while she lived in those places and while at Birch Creek she received issue until the tickets were taken up and the issue suspended.

Charley Choquette says he adopted Mary Morgan in 1864. He lived at Fort Benton. He drew rations for her and his wife and other children until 1879. Then she got married at his house. He moved onto the reservation 11 years ago. Melinda Wren says Mary Morgan used to visit her on the reservation. Was here July 4, 1907. Always comes over on holidays. Melinda frequently visits here on Birch Creek.


 

 




TIMELINE


Apparently John B. Morgan was a mountaineer who was trading between the Indians and the Hudson Bay Company in late 1850 – 1868 in what is now the State of Montana. He was a “squaw man” with an Indian wife. Harry knew, as his son, he was half white. John B. Morgan died in 1868 at age 53. His wife also died in 1868. John B. Morgan is not to be confused with another John Morgan, a highwayman, who was hung in 1865.

The book “The Vengeful Wife and Other Blackfoot Stories” by Hugh Aylmer Dempsey available to be reviewed on-line writes how in mid-March 1865 four North Piegan Indians were abducted from the John B. Morgan home by a group of miners and hung nearby. Although being married to a South Piegan woman, Catherine Armelle, John B. Morgan seemed to not have minded this from taking place, and was even an accomplice to the act.

Harry always believed that his father was a Captain who came up the Missouri River to control the Indian situation. This seems not to be the case.

There were several men of this name on the Upper Missouri about this time. Charles Morgan, a Scotchman, hunter at Fort Union in 1851-52, planned to return to his home in 1852. Robert Morgan, a friend and countryman of Andrew Dawson, settled in the Red River country of Canada, where Andrew Dawson, Junior, was sent to school and lived with Morgan. John B. Morgan, an old mountaineer, lived on Sun River in 1862 and was the first settler on the Little Prickley Pear, where he was living when the Fisk expedition of 1863 came through. He had built a log house, barns and corrals, all surrounded by a stockade ten feet high.
 

Father N. Congiato — at this time the Superior of the Rocky Mountain Missions — visited Fort Benton next, as we find him here September 2, 1858, baptizing four half-breed children. The place is called by him in the register of those baptisms Fort Campbell. The following year, 1859, we find at Fort Benton Father De Smet, who, August 1, gave holy baptism to eight half-breed children and to some Indians also, and on the next day, August 2, married two couples. The contracting parties of the first couple were Clement Cornoyer and Mary Champagne; of the second, J. Morgan and Rose Masero, the witnesses in both cases being Col. J. Vaughn, A. Dawson and Francis Cabanne. The latter marriage, however, was found soon after to have been null and a sacrilege, as Morgan had another wife living at the time. This is declared in a note in Father Giorda's own hand appended subsequently to the record of that attempted marriage.

 
There existed at the time the greatest rivalry between the two establishments, and from the fact that the Reverend missionary speaks of the place as Fort Benton, without any explicit reference to the rival concern, leads us to surmise that while there he was most likely the guest of that older post. Whether this is the same J. Morgan whom we have seen connected with the hanging of several Indians at Sun River Crossing — see St. Peter's Mission, Part I — the writer has not been able to ascertain.

 

There were several Indian lodges camped about Old Agency at the time, and when the Father began to see and move around, he went to visit and instruct them. He noticed, however, as did others, that the Indians had suddenly become strangely reticent and sulky. He wondered what the cause might be, and having inquired, they told him that four of their people had been hanged by the whites near Sun River Crossing, and that the bodies had been thrown into the river, through a hole cut in the ice. And there was only too much truth to the ghastly tale.

Near the locality mentioned by the Indians there lived one John B. Morgan, a squaw man, married to a Piegan woman. Some few days before, a party of Indians of the same tribe, numbering at least four, had come to his house and were his guests. He treated them well, making them feel quite at home, and having been assured that they were perfectly safe with him, they put aside their guns. Shortly after, there also arrived at his place a party of whites, led by one Charlie Carson. They were a squad of the volunteers who under the proclamation of the Acting Governor, General Thomas Francis Meagher, had been enlisted with the object of sending them against the Blackfeet Indians. But they were soon after disbanded, their organization having been disapproved by the Government at Washington, D. C.

Did Morgan send for his new visitors? Did he bring them to his home? We cannot say. But certain it is that he could not have behaved more treacherously than if he had been in entire collusion with them. As he afterward boasted of doing, he gave his Indian guests over to the Carson crowd, telling them: "Now, boys, right here is a chance for you: some of the redskins you are after are in this house."

The doomed Indians were in an adjoining room eating what Morgan had set before them. Suddenly attacked, they were quickly overpowered, and dragged out and hanged to a couple of trees near the premises. The bodies, still warm, were cast into the river, through an opening hastily cut in the ice. The tragic ending of these poor fellows was witnessed by two of their companions, who had remained hiding in the underbrush close by. Either they distrusted Morgan, or some other reason not known led to their hiding. They now stole away unperceived, and hastened to bring the news to their fellow Indians, camped near Old Agency. No wonder that these had become unusually sullen.

Nor were they slow in giving vent to their desire for revenge. They attacked the New Agency, a few miles from Morgan's, where they killed one of the men; whilst another owed his escape merely to the accidental explosion of some powder in the building, which frightened off the assailants. Simultaneously, another band fell upon a stopping place on the Dearborn. Here, too, they killed a white man, whom they caught outside; and but for the rest having fortified themselves within the premises, all would have fallen victims to Indian vengeance.

Notwithstanding his being married to an Indian woman of the same tribe, Morgan had good ground to fear for himself and his family. Hence, he hastened to the Mission, and sought to obtain there shelter for them, on the plea of the general insecurity of the country about, and because he had to go to Helena on most urgent business. The man was soon suspected by the Indians and believed to have had some part in the hanging of their people at his place. Hence his mere going to seek protection for his family at the Mission was apt to bring odium on the Fathers. We have seen above that distrust of the missionaries had already crept into the mind of some of them, and the tragedy at Morgan's could not but add to it.

This became more apparent day by day. Acts of hostility, such as wantonly shooting down the Mission stock, several head being killed or maimed, plainly showed the temper of the savages. But worse: about Easter, John Fitzgerald, whom the Fathers employed as herder, was shot dead, hardly a quarter of a mile from their premises. There was no telling what the next day might bring on.

Father Giorda, the general Superior, was at this time at Alder Gulch or Virginia City, whither he had gone to give the many Catholics in that large mining camp the opportunity to make their Easter duties. A messenger was dispatched to him; and without a moment's delay he set out for St. Peter's Mission. On reaching the place, he viewed the situation with no little concern, and tender-hearted as he was, broke into tears.

We shall see directly that a new site for the Mission had been selected a year before, and that preparation for the removal to the new place had been going on for several months. Hence, "Father Giorda felt considerably relieved," writes Father Kuppens, "when we told him that things in the new place were practically ready."

But of this in the next chapter.


John B. Morgan, an old mountaineer, lived on Sun River in 1862 and was the first settler on the Little Prickley Pear, where he was living when the Fisk expedition of 1863 came through. He had built a log house, barns and corrals, all surrounded by a stockade ten feet high.


!GENEALOGY-SPOUSE: Genealogies of the Blackfoot Indian Tribe in Browning, Glacier, Montana, Extracted by Mose Gilham at the Blackfoot Indian Tribal Office, Browning, Montana Filmed by The LDS Genealogical Society March 11, 1968 Film #459641 SLC3 Information is from a census taken in 1907-1908. p. 374

!BIRTH-DEATH-SPOUSE-MARRIAGE: From a FGS submitted by Shirley Gilham Boucher, 28815 190th Ave., S.E., Kent, WA 98042 (206) 630-6216 dated 3 Aug 1996. Shirley writes in her letter dated 3 Aug 1996 "I do have a paper, of unknown source, that A. Hamel was an interpreter at Ft. Clay and that he had built a house in the winter of 1845 on the bank of a river (unnamed)."

!PICTURE: I have a picture of Augustine Armel with the following notations attached. Received from Shirley Gilham Bouche on 15 Aug 1996. "Augstin Armell... This early day employe (sic) at American Fur Company posts, is often shown as Hamell or Hamil and is pictured in Fr. Point's Journals in a drawing. He quite apparently was a trader for the company, and the Journal shows a location in the Musselshell area as Hamil's house, assumably as 1845 and soon on the Marias. A creek flows into the Missouri as Armell's and he still lived in the Fort Benton area as late as the 1850's, descendants appear in Blackfeet Heritage.
Ralph Miracle has him in 1845 as just below Grand Isle."

[Note: Blackfeet Heritage is a book with a listing of descendants - we currently do not have a copy. But Shirley Bouche says that the book is made up of the information we have from the Mose Gilham census of 1907-1908.]

Another picture is attached to the above. The caption says, the Home of Mr. Hamel, the interpreter at Fort Clay. To the left is the following notation: "To our right we saw the ruins of a house which had been built, during the rigorous winter of 1845, by A. Hamel, present interpreter at Fort Clay. That winter made him decide not to spend another one there.... "

!BIOGRAPHY: "Story of Augustin Hamel and Children as told by his daughter, Susan Arnoux, the youngest living child at the age of 91 years.
"Augustin Hamel, interpreter and Indian trader in the territory that became Ft. Lewis and later Ft. Benton, is first mentioned in the Congressional Records of the years 1854-1855.
"Hamel, a man of French descent, was already an occupant of this region and for many years had traded with and lived among them (The Blackfeet Indian nation) until he became thoroughly versed in the Blackfeet language. Upon the transition of the White man toward this western point it became necessary for a competent interpreter to be had upon making the treaties for peaceful relations between the Blackfeet and the invading White man. Hamel was just the man and became one of the first official interpreters involved in peaceful relations of trade and well being between them.
"Augustin Hamel, later naturalized at Council Bluffs, Iowa, in Pottawattamie County by C. Eubank; Clerk of District Court, on the 9th of March 1855, first married a Blackfeet, Chicken Women, by whom he had one child, Margaret, born in 1820. Upon the death of Chicken Women, Hamel then married Pine Women, with whom he lived until he died. Pine Women gave Hamel 9 children. Upon the arrival of Nicolaus Point, Catholic priest, the first to arrive at Ft. Lewis, later known as Ft. Benton, Hamel, a strong Catholic, had his marriage blessed and his children baptized. This took place in the year 1846, and seven of his children were given baptism. The were Aloysia, born in 1834, being the eldest, followed by Monica, Cecilia, Edward, Godfrey, Stephen and Angelica. Father Point left and was gone for two years. When he returned he brought Father DeSmit with him to the Blackfeet Indians. [This part was lined out so may not be correct] and then the three youngest children, Ellen, Milly and Susan were baptized by Father DeSmit.
"Hamel, having been born in France, came to Montreal and worked for the Hudson Bay Co., and shipped furs down the Missouri River in the early days of St, Louis. "When the Hamel's youngest child was born they moved to Omaha, Neb., and lived there for seven years before death overcame him. His son in law, whose name was Billedeaux, then moved the family back to Fort Benton. [ This might be Mitchele Billedeaux]

"When Mrs. Susan Arnoux, who is the only living child of Hamel and is telling this story, came back to Fort Benton, she was nine years old and that is when she and her other two sisters were baptized by father DeSmitt. [See line out note above.]

"Their mother, Mrs. Hamel, then went for a visit to her people in Canada and while traveling near Fort McCloud along the Belly River, they were attacked by a band of Cree Indians, numbering about one hundred. There was only about thirty Blackfeet in their party with about nine lodges among them. All but two of their lodges were shot down and those who belonged to the Blackfeet. Seeing no other deliverance from the warring party, Mrs. Hamel, having great faith in her Catholic Religion which she had learned to believe in, took her rosary and the stations of the cross and prayed to them for a storm which would check the attack of the Crees. Her prayers seem to have been heard for after a short time a storm came and the attack stopped. All their horses having been killed by the attacking party, they were forced to walk to the nearest Blackfeet encampment and borrowed horses to move what remained of their camp.

"All the Hamel girls married white men, except the oldest girl who was killed by Grovons when but a small child. Several children were playing on the banks of the Missouri River and they noticed a rider approaching, but they paid little attention to him, as the people of the Fort, which was Fort Benton, had an Indian boy outside of the fort herding the horses and they just thought it was this boy they saw approaching and started to run to meet him, but on nearing him they noticed it was a strange Indian and turned to run back to the Fort for safety. The older children tried to help the smaller children, Cecile picked Mrs. Helen P. Clark up and carried her on her back to safety as she was one of the smaller children. Eloise, the oldest girl who was killed, was blinded by sickness and even with the help of her sister Monica, could not travel fast enough and was killed. It is said that a small boy was also killed at this time.

"The first frame Catholic church of Fort Benton was build by donations from these girls husbands and other people there who wished to see this religion be carried on in their new country."

!COMPILATION: Blackfeet Heritage 1907-1908 Blackfeet Indian Reservation, Browning, Montana, book is published by the Blackfeet Heritage Program, Browning Public Schools, P. O. box 610, Browning, Montana 59417, edited by Rozanne DeMarce, p.35, 134, 145; Father of Emily LaBreche; Name spelled: Augustus Armelle.

!SOURCE: This File was received via E-Mail from Lorraine "Lori" Clenney 13342 Tobisson Road, Poway, Ca 92064-3646; E-Mail: lorclen@home.com dated 8 Aug 2000. File relates to our Billedeaux connections.

!NOTE: Information taken from "1998 Blackfeet Genealogy, Treasures and Gifts" by the Blackfeet Tribal Business Council and Roxanne De Marce P. O. Box 850, Browning, Montana 59417. See page 54. The following statement was made in the notes by Kenneth Gene Blair. "...Pine Woman's husband, Augustin Hamell spoke fluent Blackfeet, owned a string of Trading Posts known as Hamell Houses. He served as interpreter during treaty negotiations Sept 21, 1853 between Blackfeet and officials for the Stevens expedition, in preparation for the railroad." (See Stevens' Report 1853)

 

 

 

 

Beyond spirit tailings: Montana's mysteries, ghosts, and haunted places,  By Ellen Baumler

The Hoo Doo Block, Pages 33 - 39.

"fort benton" montana perkins morgan

Google Books


Indian and White
In the History of the Northwest
Chapter 26

A small X, in a dry coulee, a quarter of a mile west of our fence, marks the spot where John Fitzgerald, our herder, was killed, April 6, 1866. Cross (X), No. 2, on the incline north of the Mission, marks his grave, R. I. P. Cross (X) No. 3, marks the grave of Mr. Johnston, who was brought to the Mission sick, and after a few days asked for baptism and died a Catholic. His grave was the first on the hill. R. I. P.

Three small cabins outside of our place toward the east were occupied as follows: in the one nearest to the Mission lived a Flathead Indian with his old spouse. Both were good Catholics; and their children were married and lived in the camp. The middle cabin was occupied by a Blackfoot Indian, with his two wives and six children. he had rescued Father Giorda from the river, and took good care that every guest at the Mission should be acquainted with all the details; he never forgot them. The farthest cabin toward the east was the home of Mr. Viel, a French Canadian married to a daughter of a Blackfoot chief. He had four children and all practiced the duties of religion. They were a happy family.

Cross (X) and cross (X) 5 in the river mark the place where Father Giorda broke through the ice, and where he was rescued. (The spot is indicated by the space between the two crosses.)

The accompanying map (continued father Kuppens) may perhaps five a faint idea of the buildings of St. Peter's Mission on the bank of the Missouri. The first glance at the houses should convince a person that the inmates were not cave-dwellers, nor should they be ranked among the cliff-dwellers either. We sometime had a discussion as to the style of architecture that had been adopted; it was neither Greek nor Roman nor Byzantine nor Gothic; nor either an imitation of California Mission. It was Montana pioneer style.

Rooms Nos. 1 and 2, and Nos. 3 and 4, had been erected at the first beginning of the mission, in February, 1862. Rooms Nos. 5 6, 7, were built during November and December, 1864. All the buildings were well matched, all of the same material, green cottonwood logs, the same degree of finish; they were not squared and the bark had not been removed. The walls were about seven and a half feet high. The interstices and chinking were plastered with clay. The roof was made of rails laid close together, overlaid with a heavy layer of clay. There were no ceiling to any of the rooms; and as to floor, we had, when the buildings were new, a most delightful velvet green carpet of the very dense sod. When that carpet was worn out, as the very best will do in time, we walked on a clay floor.

There was a porch, about five feet wide, along the whole length of this incipient rectangle. In after life, I have often wondered that these could be so much interior peace and consolation in poor surroundings. These were all the accommodations at St. Peter's in 1864.

But I must not forget two useful adjuncts, a stockade coral, faced by the windows of rooms No. 1 and 2, for the ponies of our guests. These were borrowed sometimes during the night, to the great annoyances of ourselves and our guests. By this arrangement, each guest could have an eye to his pony whenever he awoke. Another stockade coral was along the eat side of the building, for our cattle and horses. This saved a great amount of trouble.

The time of the accident to Father Giorda was at the very beginning, whilst they were preparing the foundations and laying the logs. At my arrival at the Mission, Father Giorda himself whilst showing me the points of interest about the place, pointed out to me where he had broken through the ice and was saved from the waters. He also introduced me to his rescuer. A week after the accident, Father Giorda set out for the Gros Ventres camp, where he had another adventure, narrated in the book (Indian and White in the Northwest).

The site and premises described and illustrated by Father Kuppens show us the Mission of St. peter, as it stood on the banks of the Missouri. But it did not remain there long, hardly five years, since in the spring of 1866, as we shall seem it was removed to another location, the one it occupies today. Nevertheless, its short existence by the Missouri appears to have been spiced with incident.

As Father Kuppens was returning one day from a missionary excursion, an Indian stopped him in the middle of the road, a few miles from the Mission. Somehow, the Father's mount had caught the eye of the redskin, and he offered to swap it for his own bronco. As the Father would not consent to the bargain, the Indian seized the hose by the bridle, as if determined to take it by force. Upon this, Father Kuppens gave the fellow a good whack across the face with his whip, and off he galloped as fast as the hose could take him. Twinkling of an eye, the Indian had recovered from his surprise and with bow and arrow shot at the Father, hitting him in the calf of the right leg, where the missile stuck, till it was extracted by Father Ravalli at the mission.

Father Kuppens makes no allusion whatever on his notes to the occurrence. Ina a personal letter to the writer he makes light of the whole thing and laughs it off, as not worth mentioning.

At first quite a number of Indians collected in the new place. But they did not, nor could they remain any length of time. So far, "the buffalo" as Father Kuppens tells us, "was their only support, and they moved their camp to the source of their food supply."

It also came to pass that unusual dry weather prevailed three years in succession at this period: and it did not tend to impose the Indians favorably with the locality. Hence they left "regretfully," according to some; "dissatisfied and in disgust," according to others.

Father Kuppens takes us to task for having stated in the first edition that the dry weather had destroyed "the crops three years in succession." "True, the Indians and the Mission had no crops for three successive years," says the father, "but they had not planted anything"; for they had neither seed not any means to plant it with. Accordingly, historical accuracy would have us say, not that the dry weather destroyed the crops, but that it would have done so had there been any to destroy. For, according to Brother L. D'Agostino, who also lived there at the time, hardly any green grass could be seen thereabouts during the prolonged dry spell.

With 1862, had begun what may be called the gold-digging period of Montana, deposits of the precious metals being discovered at Bannack, Gold Creek, Alder Gulch, and shortly after at Silver City, Last Chance and several other places. This brought many whites into the country and kept them also in a feverish state of mine, with constant expectation of new diggings being discovered. Crowds would rush or stampede, as goes the word, in this or that direction, at the first rumor of gold being struck. However, very often such rumored discoveries proved ill-founded, bringing nothing in their train save disappointment and hardship.

A wild stampede of the kind occurred in the winter of 1865, when somebody spread the news of a big find in the Sun River country. It was during a blizzard in one of the coldest winters ever experienced in Montana, and many a brave, bur unfortunate miner has his ears, nose, hands or feet frozen. A number found their way to St. Peter's Mission, whose poor and scant accommodations were thrown open to them by the Fathers. Were it not for this, and the medical skill and unsparing devotedness of Father Ravalli, several would have surely perished.

"I remember the Sun River stampede," writes Father Kuppens, " and whilst the Sun River country received the brunt of the inundation, we on the Missouri received an overflow far above our capacity to accommodate."

But the discovery of gold in Montana had other aspects far more serious than stampeding, and none could be more serious then the strife which it brought about between the whites and the Indians, and which promised little good for the latter.

The natives had been from time immemorial the sole possessors of all these regions, and naturally enough they resented seeing them invaded by the pale faces. On the other hand, the discovery of gold was bringing in the whites by the thousand from every quarter. Nor could they be stopped in their rush any more than an avalanche can be stayed by means of a few straws. Yet, the Indians imagined that they could hold back the white man by force. Hence the state of guerrilla warfare that prevailed, especially in the northern part of Montana, at this time of our history.

Detached bands or war parties of Blackfeet would fall on groups of miners, prospectors, teamsters or travelers, and mercilessly rob and murder every one of them. The whites retaliated. Hence it came to pass that innocent persons were often made to suffer for some one else's misdoings; and many a harmless white man, and many a peaceful native perished during this lawless and bloody strife.

A reprisal of the kind occurred along the Marias about this time, when four peaceful Indians ere murdered by whites. As a sequel and in revenge, some whites were killed by Indians shortly after. Matters grew rapidly worse, and from 1865 6o 1869, the Blackfeet appeared to become desperate, and bent on exterminating every white man found in the country. The highway to Fort Benton, particularly, became so infested with marauding bands of Indians that the life of no white man traveling over that road was secure. it is asserted that in the summer of 1869 fifty-six white people were killed, either from ambush or in the open, along that road, by Indian war parties.

These disturbed conditions are referred to as follows by Father Kuppens:

The summer of 1866 was full of excitement and rumors of Indian wars, and many lives of both whites and Indians were sacrificed, and the Mullan road from Fort Benton became very unsafe. To protect this thoroughfare to the gold fields in Montana, Fort Shaw was established, late in the summer in the immediate vicinity of the second location of the Mission (on Sun River.)

The murder of Malcom Clark, at the mouth of Prickly Pear Canyon, twenty-five miles from Helena, brought things to a climax. It led to what has been called the Piegan War of 1869-70, when Col. Baker and his command slaughtered two hundred and thirty-three Indians, fifty of whom were women and children.

And now, for the history of St. Peter's. We must retrace our steps, and return to the year 1865-66. In the Fore part of that winter Father Kuppens went to visit the Indians, who were then camped on the right bank of the Missouri, some thirty miles below Fort Benton. During his visit he found that they were bent on mischief against all white people in general, and even against the Mission and the Fathers. A number of the Indians were clearly under the false impression that every white man was an enemy. They had, therefore, resolved to treat as such even the Black Robes.

All this was communicated to Father Kuppens by a personal friend of his in the tribe. So far the missionaries had not had the slightest sign of any feeling against them on the part of the Indians. The information came as a surprise to the Father; and the more so as he could not doubt the veracity of his informant. He left the camp rather sadly, and as he was retracing his course toward the Mission he met with a very trying visitation, becoming snow-blind and totally helpless. Most providentially, there happened to come his way a kind-hearted miner, by name John Dougherty, who took care of him and led him safe to Old Agency, some eighteen miles from the Mission. Here, with rest and proper care, he gradually regained his sight, and had also for some time the company of a confrere, Brother D'Agostino, sent to his relief from the Mission.

There were several Indian lodges camped about Old Agency at the time, and when the Father began to see and move around, he went to visit and instruct them. He noticed, however, as did others, that the Indians had suddenly become strangely reticent and sulky. He wondered what the cause might be, and having inquired, they told him that four of their people had been hanged by the whites near Sun River Crossing, and that the bodies had been thrown into the river, through a hole cut in the ice. And there was only too much truth to the ghastly tale.

Near the locality mentioned by the Indians there lived one John B. Morgan, a squaw man, married to a Piegan woman. Some few days before, a party of Indians of the same tribe, numbering at least four, had come to his house and were his guests. He treated them well, making them feel quite at home, and having been assured that they were perfectly safe with him, they put aside their guns. Shortly after, there also arrived at his place a party of white, led by one Charles Carson. They were a squad of the volunteers who under the proclamation of the Acting Governor, General Thomas Francis Meagher, had been enlisted with the object of sending them against the Blackfeet Indians. But they were soon after disbanded, their organization having been disapproved by the Government of Washington, D. C.

Did Morgan send for his new visitors? Did he bring them to his home? We cannot say. But certain it is that the could not have behaved more treacherously than if he had been in entire collusion with them. As he afterward boasted of doing; he gave his Indian guests over to the Carson crown, telling them: "Now, boys, right here is a chance for you; some of the redskins you are after are in this house.

The doomed Indians were in an adjoining room eating what Morgan had set before them. Suddenly attacked, they were quickly overpowered, and dragged out and hanged to a couple of trees near the premises. The bodies, still warm, were cast into the river, through an opening hastily but in the ice. The tragic ending of these poor fellows was witnessed by two of their companions, who had remained hiding in the underbrush close by. Either they distrusted Morgan, or some other reason not known led to their hiding. They now stole away unperceived, and hastened to bring the news to their fellow Indians, camped near Old Agency. No wonder that these had become unusually sullen.

Nor were they slow in giving vent to their desire for revenge. They attacked the New Agency, a few miles from Morgan's, where they killed one of the men; whilst another owed his escape merely to the accidental explosion of some powder in the building, which frightened off the assailants. Simultaneously, too, they killed a white man, whom they caught outside; and but for the rest having fortified themselves with the premises, all would have fallen victims to Indian vengeance.

Notwithstanding his being married to an Indian woman of the same tribe, Morgan had good ground to fear for himself and his family. hence, he hastened to the Mission, and sought to obtain there shelter for them, on the plea of the general insecurity of the country about, and because he had to go to Helena on most urgent business. The man was soon suspected by the Indians and believed to have had some part in the hanging of their people at his place. Hence his mere going to seek protection for his family at the Mission was apt to bring odium on the Fathers. We have seen above that distrust of the missionaries had already crept into the mind of some of them, and the tragedy at Morgan's could not but add to it.

This became more apparent day by day. Acts of hostility such as wantonly shooting down the Mission stock, several head being killed or maimed, plainly showed the temper of the savages. But worse: about Easter, John Fitzgerald, whom the Fathers employed as herder, was shot dead, hardly a quarter of a mile from their premises. There was not telling what the next day might bring on.

Father Giorda, the general Superior, was at this time at Alder Gulch or Virginia City, whither he had gone to give the many Catholics in that large mining camp the opportunity to make their Easter duties. A messenger was dispatched to him; and without a moment's delay he set out for St. Peter's Mission. On reaching the place, he viewed the situation with no little concern, and tender-hearted as he was, broke into tears.

We shall see directly that a new site for the Mission had been selected a year before, and that preparation for the removal to the new place had been going on for several months. Hence, "Father Giorda felt considerably relieved," writes Father Kuppens, "when we told him that things in the new place were practically ready."

But of this in the next chapter.


 

 

The Blackfoot civilization had that sense of accomplishment. The people were happy and free in their homeland. It took violence and fraud and bribery to push them back into a reservation. The colonizers were successful. By the end of the 19th century, the Blackfoot civilization had largely been overrun by American savagery. This savagery included military repression, the whiskey trade, residential schools and cattle ranching. The details of how this took place will be the subject of my next post.

SOURCES: Long Standing Bear Chief, "Ni-Kso-Ko-Wa: Blackfoot Spirituality, Traditions, Values and Beliefs" (This can be ordered from Spirit Talk Press in Browning, Montana (blkfoot4@3rivers.net).

George Catlin, "North American Indians," Penguin, 1989

John Ewers, "The Blackfeet: Raiders of the Northwestern Plains," University of Oklahoma, 1958

George Bird Grinnell, "Blackfoot Lodge Tales: The Story of a Prairie People," University of Nebraska, 1962

Marshall Sahlins, "Stone Age Economics," Aldine de Gruyter Press, 1972


Part two:

Reporter (to Mahatma Gandhi): Mr. Gandhi, what do you think of Western Civilization?

Gandhi: I think it would be a good idea.

----

Beginning in the mid 1800s and coming to a climax in the post-Civil War period, rapacious gold prospectors, fur trading companies and ranchers invaded Blackfoot territory. They came in the same fashion that profit-oriented barbarians have come to the Amazon rainforest in recent decades, with plunder in their hearts and a willingness to exterminate anybody who got in the way.

It should come as no surprise that the US Army defended the invaders on the basis of protecting private property and "civilization." In the summer of 1865 the Pikuni (Southern Blackfoot) signed a treaty in Fort Benton, Montana that pushed their southern boundary north to the Teton River. They received annuities of $50,000 a year for a period of twenty years. If the United States did not have the benefit of a superior armed force, the Blackfoot never would have signed such a treaty since it amounted to theft. As Woodie Guthrie once said, some men will steal your valuables with a gun while some will do it with a fountain pen. The United States used both gun and fountain pen.

Clashes with gold prospectors continued, who refused to respect Blackfoot rights within the newly redefined territory. When some prospectors under the leadership of the racist thug John Morgan killed four Pikuni men just for sport, Chief Bull's Head organized a large revenge party and the prospectors got their comeuppance.

In 1868, when a Pikuni elder and a small boy were in Fort Benton on an errand, white racists shot them down in the street. Alfred Sully, who had responsibility for upholding the law in the tense area, said that because of tensions between the two groups he could not convict the killers in any court. This gave other white settlers a license to continue killing. When the Pikuni resorted to self-defense, the authorities decided that some kind of state of emergency existed and called in outside help.

Having decided that the Indians rather than the rapacious invaders were at fault, the army ordered Colonel E. M. Baker to put down a rebellion led by Mountain Chief. "Strike them hard" were his instructions. He pulled together four companies of cavalry, augmented by fifty-five mounted infantrymen and a company of infantry, and marched on the Indians. On daybreak of January 23, 1870, the US army under Baker's command attacked a village on the Marias river. They killed 173 Indians, seized 300 horses and took 140 women and children into custody. There was only one problem. This was not Mountain Chief's village, but one that was friendly to the United States. Many of the villagers were sickly victims of a recent smallpox epidemic. To add to their misery, the troops burned the lodges and camp equipment.

This was a Blackfoot My Lai. The eternally sanctimonious New York Times editorialized on February 24, 1870, "The question is whether a wholesale slaughter of women and children was needed for the vindication of our aims." One wonders if the New York Times keeps a file of such sentiments recyclable for suitable occasions, such as the recent bombing of a medicine factory in Sudan.

The consequences of this mass murder were as would be expected. It panicked the Pikuni into signing another compromised treaty. The whole purpose of military repression was not to restore "law and order" but to push Pikuni into the marginal portions of the state of Montana. All of these treaties from the 1860s and 70s lack legitimacy and should be reviewed, just as the annexation of Hawaii is being reviewed by the United Nations today.

The information that appears above is drawn from John C. Ewers's flawed but essential history, "The Blackfeet: Raiders on the Northwestern Plains" (U. of Oklahoma, 1958). Its flaw is visible in its very title, which depicts the Blackfeet as "raiders." Ewers draws a picture of Blackfeet (the Blackfoot people prefer not to use this term since it refers to "feet" rather than people) as warriors who enjoyed stealing horses from Indians and white settlers alike. In the very chapter where he decries the massacre at Marias river, he refers to the problems involved in "the pacification and civilization of western Indian tribes." This is said without irony.

Henry Norton "Harry" Morgan was born January 6, 1863, in Fort Benton, Chouteau County, Montana Territory.

Ophia E. C. "Opha" Rider was born March 5, 1870, in Valparaiso, Sanders Co., NE


The Montana Post, Virginia City, Montana Territory, November 27, 1868

DIED.

At Fort Benton, M. T., on the 14th of November, John B. Morgan, aged 53 years. Oregon and Iowa papers please copy.


The 1870 U. S. Census taken on July 27, 1870, shows S. J. Perkins (age 32) born in Connecticut is an Auctioneer and is living in Benton City (Fort Benton), Chouteau Co., Montana Territory. Living with him are: Katy Perkins (age 28) born in Canada to Foreign-born parents, who Keeps House; Katy Perkins (age 2/12, May) born in Montana; and Henry Morgan (age 6) born in Montana, who is 1/2 White and 1/2 Indian.

The 1870 U. S. Census taken on August 24, 1870, shows James S. Glick (age 31) born in Virginia with Personal Estate of $2,000 is a Doctor and is living in Helena, Lewis and Clark Co., Montana Territory. Living with him is Fletcher W. Conine (age 30) born in New York with Personal Estate of $500, a Stone Mason.

On November 26, 1883, Charles W. Abbey received a Homestead Land Grant for 7.8 acres of land in Minnesota, Document No. 2787.


The Stevens Point Journal, March/April 1885. First Publication March 8 --- W4.

Notice.

Cora Abbey, wife of Chas. W. Abbey, has left my bed and board without just cause or provocation, and everyone trusting her must do so on their own responsibility.

Chas. W. Abbey

Milladore, Wood County, Wis.


Henry Norton "Harry" Morgan and Ophia E. C. "Opha" Rider were married August 27, 1885, in Montana.

Samuel Benton "Sam" Abbey was born August 16, 1892, in South Byron, Byron Twp., Fond du Lac Co., WI.


Leigh Larson note: This Affidavit of Birth was given by his mother, Cora (Armstrong) Abbey, in Beulah, ND, on November 13, 1943, when she was 83 years old. Please note that the year was not typed, which probably means that she could not remember the year of his birth, and that it was filled in afterward. His actual year of birth is 1892. It is also interesting to note that the Wisconsin State Registrar, Carl N. Neupert, M. D., is likely the son of Dr. Carl von Neupert, who successfully operated on Cora's daughter in Wisconsin in June, 1896.


Edna May Morgan was born April 22, 1895, in Philipsburg, Granite Co., MT.



The 1895 Wisconsin State Census taken on June 20, 1895, shows C. Abey is the Head of Household and is living in Carson Twp., Portage Co., WI. There are a total of 3 Males and 4 Females living there, all born in the United States.


The Stevens Point Gazette, Stevens Point, Portage Co., WI; February 19, 1896

MILLADORE.

B. Smith, who for the past number of years has been pursuing the show business, has of late disposed of all his truck and concluded to lead a more pious and christian life. He is now an ardent worker of religion, and by faith he will be looked upon as the father of the new Union church of Milladore. His efforts are rewarded by the following subscriptions, a total of $260:

C. W. Abbey.........$1


The Stevens Point Journal, Stevens Point, Portage Co., WI; Saturday, June 13, 1896

CITY BRIEFS

MONDAY

A successful operation was performed by Dr. Carl von Neupert yesterday on the 3 year old daughter of C. W. Abbey of Junction City. The child's side was opened and a quantity of pus removed. Leigh Larson note: Junction City is a small village in Carson Twp., Portage Co., WI. It is located 4-1/2 miles east of the Village of Milladore, Wood Co., WI. The family lived to the north of the village.


The 1900 U. S. Census taken on June 6, 1900, shows C. W. Abbey (age 38) born August 1861 in Wisconsin to English Canadian and English-born parents is a Laborer who is renting his home and is living in Milladore Twp., Wood Co., WI. Living with him is his wife of 17 years, Cora Abbey (age 33) born September 1866 in Wisconsin to English Canadian and New York-born parents, with all six of the children born to her still alive. Also living there are his five children, all born in Wisconsin to Wisconsin-born parents: Maud Abbey (age 14) born June 1885; Samual Abbey (age 7) born August 1892; Phebe Abbey (age 5) born August 1894; Ida Abbey (age 3) born January 1897; and Orin Abbey (age 9/12) born October 1899.

The 1900 U. S. Census taken on June 1, 1900, shows Harry Morgan (age 32) born January 1868 in Montana to Montana-born parents is a Day Laborer who is renting his home in South Philipsburg Pct., Granite Co., MT. Living with him is his wife of 15 years, Opha E. Morgan (age 29) born March 1871 in Nebraska to Kentucky and Illinois-born parents who has 5 of the 7 children born to her still living. All 5 children are at home, born in Montana to Montana-born parents: Henry C. Morgan (age 13) born March 1887; Mary D. Morgan (age 11) born October 1888; Rosa R. Morgan (age 9) born August 1890; Edna L. Morgan (age 5) born April 1895; and Harry Morgan (age 1/12) born April 1900.

The 1900 U. S. Census taken on June 5, 1900, shows James P. Barber (age 41) born June 1858 in Wisconsin to Ohio and English Canadian-born parents is a Farmer owning his farm with a mortgage and is living in Eau Pleine Twp., Portage Co., WI. Living with him is his wife of 14 years, Mathilda Barber (age 31) born August 1868 in Wisconsin to German-born parents, with one of the two children born to her still alive. Also living is his son, Evin Barber (age 12) born February 1888 in Wisconsin to Wisconsin-born parents. Also living there: a Boarder, John Norton (age 56) born August 1843 in New York to English Canadian-born parents, an unmarried Day Laborer; and a Servant, Clara Abba (age 12) born in Wisconsin to Wisconsin-born parents, a House Keeper.


Stevens Point Journal, Stevens Point, WI, December 1, 1900

First publication Oct. 20-00-w7

Notice for Publication.

Department of the Interior. Land Office at Wausau, Wis., Oct. 16, 1900.

Notice is hereby given that the following named settler has filed notice of his intention to make final proof in support of his claim, and that said proof will be made before the clerk of the circuit court at Stevens Point, Wisconsin, on December 8, 1900. viz: Colman F Cotesworth, who made H. E. No. 7,723, for the N E 1/4 N E. 1/4 sec. 20, T 24 N, R 6 E.

He names the following witnesses to prove his continuous residence upon and cultivation of said land, viz: Chas. W. Abbey, of Milladore, Wis. John Cisler, of Junction City, Wis. John Harndena, of Junction City, Wis. Matthias Jacobson, of Stevens Point, Wis. EDGAR T. WHEELOCK, Register.


The Marshfield Times, Marshfield, WI, June 20, 1902

Sherry.

Mrs. C. W. Abby and children left Tuesday for Baraboo, where they will reside in the future.


The 1905 Wisconsin State Census taken on June 1, 1905, shows Chas. Abbey (age 45) born in Wisconsin to English-born parents is a Drayman who is renting his home and is living in the 1st Ward, City of Baraboo, Sauk Co., WI. Living with him is his wife, Cora Abbey (age 38) born in Wisconsin to New York-born parents. Also there are his six unmarried children, all born in Wisconsin to Wisconsin-born parents: Sammy Abbey (age 12); Oran Abbey (age 5); Maude Abbey (age 19); Clara Abbey (age 17); Phoebe Abbey (age 10); and Ida Abbey (age 7).

The 1905 Wisconsin State Census taken on June 1, 1905, shows S. B. Armstrong (age 82) born in New York to Canadian and Connecticut-born parents is a Retired Farmer who owns his own home free of a mortgage and is living in Baraboo Twp., Sauk Co., WI. Living with him is his wife, Lois Armstrong (age 74) born in Michigan to Ohio-born parents, who is a House Keeper.


The Daily Northwestern, Oshkosh, WI, Tuesday, August 15, 1905

NEWS OF MENASHA.

The new arrivals at the Langaff hotel are: Chas. Hemseler, Milwaukee; Paul Yoergers, Escanaba, Mich.; H. Awe, Oshkosh; H. Nelson, Milwaukee; S. C. W. Warrin, Grand Rapids; W. E. Gannon, Detroit, Mich.; R. E. Malady, Fond du Lac; C. W. Abby, Fond du Lac and C. M. Ricker, Chicago.


In 1906, Charles removed near Beulah, Mercer Co., ND, and farmed south of the city. He was one of the pioneer settlers of Beulah.


The Evening News, Baraboo, Sauk Co., WI, January 15, 1907

AT THE ALTER OF HYMEN

Miss Clara Abbey of this city, has received a letter from Glen Ullin, N. D., announcing the marriage of her sister Maude, to Orin Sovereign on Dec. 30. The Abbey family went to Dakota some months ago where the bride took up a claim. Her husband also has a claim in that state.


The 1910 U. S. Census taken on May 4, 1910, shows Charles Abbey (age 48) born in Wisconsin to English-born parents is a Farmer living in Twp. 142, Mercer Co., ND. Living with him were his wife of 26 years, Cora Abbey (age 43) born in Wisconsin to New York and Canadian-born parents, with all 6 of the children born to her still alive. Also living there his five unmarried children, all born in Wisconsin to Wisconsin-born parents: Clara Belle Abbey (age 22), who works in a Woolen Factory; Samuel Abbey (age 17); Phoebe Abbey (age 15); Ida Abbey (age 12); and Oran Abbey (age 10). His daughter, Helen Abbey, is crossed off the list. Leigh Larson note: Clara B. Abbey (age 22) is also listed as living in Baraboo, Sauk Co., WI on April 20, 1910 as a lodger in the Charles Burdick household. She is a Drawer in a Woolen Mill.

The 1910 U. S. Census taken on April 22, 1910, shows Harry N. Morgan (age 44) born in Montana to Missouri and Montana-born parents is a Forest Guard for the Government renting his home at 903 Cherry Street, Ward 1, Missoula, Hellgate Twp., Missoula Co., MT. Living with him is his wife of 25 years, Ophia M. Morgan (age 40) born in Nebraska to Kentucky and Nebraska-born parents, with 6 of the 8 children born to her still alive. Five of his children are living at home, all unmarried and born in Montana to Montana and Nebraska-born parents: Henry E. Morgan (age 23), an Odd Jobs Laborer; Mary D. Morgan (age 21), a Dressmaker at Home; Edna M. Morgan (age 15); Claude H. Morgan (age 10); and Ernest H. Morgan (age 7). Three Lodgers also live in the household.

On July 2, 1914, Charles W. Abbey received a Homestead Land Grant for 160 acres of land in North Dakota, Document No. 0011464.

Samuel Benton "Sam" Abbey and Edna May Morgan were married November 26, 1914, in Ovando, Powell Co., MT.



The WWI Draft Registration Report dated June 5, 1917, shows Sam B. Abbey (age 24) born August 16, 1892, in Baraboo, WI, is a Miner who is employed by Brooklyn Mining Co. in Princeton, MT, and is living in Maxville, MT. He is married and has one child. He has had one year of military service with the National Guard, Company K, Dixon, ND.


The 1920 U. S. Census taken on January 13, 1920, shows Sam B. Abbey (age 26) born in Wisconsin to Maine and Wisconsin-born parents is a married Miner in a Silver Mine on his Own Account and is living alone in the Village of Black Pine, Stone Precinct, Granite Co., MT.

The 1930 U. S. Census taken on April 10, 1930 shows Samuel B. Abbey (age 36) born in Wisconsin to United States-born parents and first married at age 21 is a Metal Miner renting his home for $15/month and is living on Sutter Street, 2nd Ward, City of Philipsburg, Granite Co., MT. Living with him is his wife, Edna M. Abbey (age 34) born in Montana to Montana and Nebraska-born parents and first married at age 19. Also living there are his children, both born in Montana to Wisconsin and Montana-born parents: Katheryn M. Abbey (age 14); and Herbert W. Abbey (age 9).

In 1941, Herbert Abbey was living in Lincoln, Lewis and Clark Co., MT.

Ophia E. C. "Opha" (Rider) Morgan died January 2, 1943, at her home in Ovando, Powell Co., MT, at age 72.



Monday, January 4, 1943

Funeral Rites For Mrs. Morgan 1:30 Wednesday

Services for Wife of Ovando Deputy Game Warden in Missoula.

Funeral services for Mrs. Harry N. Morgan of Ovando, will take place at 1:30 o'clock Wednesday afternoon at the Marsh & Powell chapel. Rev. Walter B. Spaulding will officiate and burial will be in Missoula cemetery. Mrs. Morgan, 72, died suddenly at her home at Ovando Saturday. She was the wife of Harry N. Morgan, deputy game warden in the Blackfoot country for many years. She had been in poor health for many months, but the end came suddenly at her home. Mrs. Morgan was born March 5, 1870, in Nebraska. She married Mr. Morgan 57 years ago at Philipsburg. The couple moved to Ovando in 1913, and had resided there since. Besides her husband, she is survived by three sons, Claude H., Ovando, Carl H., Junction, Ore., and Ernest W., Seattle; three daughters, Mrs. Harry D. Johnston, Three Forks; Mrs. Rosa R. Miller, 802 Russell street; and Mrs. Edna Abbey, of Lincoln; six grandchildren and nine great-grandchildren and one sister, Mrs. Della Roske, Baker, Ore.


Edna May (Morgan) Abbey died January 28, 1951, in Missoula, Missoula Co., MT, at age 55.

Samuel Benton "Sam" Abbey died February 4, 1951, in Galen, Deer Lodge Co., MT, at age 58.

Henry Norton "Harry" Morgan died August 2, 1957, at a Missoula rest home, Missoula, Missoula Co., MT, at age 94.


The Montana Standard, Butte-Anaconda, MT, Saturday, August 3, 1957

State's Oldest Native, Harry Morgan, Is Dead

MISSOULA - Montana's oldest native, Harry Morgan, died Friday at a Missoula rest home. He was the first white child born at Fort Benton, during the Civil War, and came to western Montana when he was 10. Morgan, a past president of the Society of Montana Pioneers, was a veteran deputy game warden, serving the Blackfoot country from 1913 through 1947. His recollections of Montana's early days, of Indian fights, gold strikes and stockmen's wars, made him a prime favorite of Treasure State historians. He was born Jan. 6, 1863. His father, Capt. John Morgan, had come up the Missouri River a few years before with a company of Union soldiers, to take charge of Ft. Benton, the end of navigation for steamboats on the Missouri. Settlers, prospectors and supplies all reached Montana by that route. There were a few white men in the territory. After Morgan's mother died, an Indian took him to rear. Capt. Morgan was killed in a battle with a war party of Blackfeet Indians, and Dr. J. S. Glick of Helena took the youngster when he was 7. Three years he went to Philipsburg to reside with Henry Schnipel. He grew to manhood in that Granite county town during its turbulent mining days, working in the town and on ranches. From 15 on, he was "on his own," riding the range, hauling ore, cutting wood and mining. Later he was employed by the forest service, and spent much time as a guide for hunting parties. He was married to Ophi Rider on Aug. 27, 1885. The ceremony was performed by the late Frank D. (Sandbar) Brown, another moved to Ovando shortly before he became deputy warden. Mrs. Morgan died in 1943. Ten years later he moved to Missoula to make his home with a daughter, Mrs. E. G. Haugh. Other survivors are another daughter, Mrs. Mary D. Johnson of Three Forks; two sons, Henry Carl Morgan of Drewsey, Ore., and Ernest W., of Burley, Idaho; nine grandchildren, 22 great-grandchildren and several nieces and nephews. Funeral services will be at 2 p. m. Monday (MST) at Lucy's Sunrise Chapel.


The Daily Independent, Helena, MT, Sunday, Aug. 29, 1880

Death of Dr. Glick.

Our community was shocked yesterday morning upon learning that Dr. Jerome S. Glick was dead. He had been seen late on the preceding evening riding through the streets apparently in his usual health. At about 5:15 o'clock on Friday evening he returned from a horseback ride, and dismounted at the livery stable of Piatt & Young. Almost immediately upon alighting he fell to the floor in a fit, caused by a sudden attack of cerebro spinal congestion. He was promptly removed to a comfortable sleeping apartment, and Drs. Steele and Atchison summoned to attend him. All that these skillful physicians could do was done to restore the patient, but in vain. He never recovered consciousness, and at 4:45 o'clock yesterday morning died. Dr. Glick was born in the year 1832 at Harper's Ferry, Virginia. Before attaining his majority he was appointed to a cadetship in the West Point Military Academy, but left that institution without graduating. He entered McDowell Medical College, St. Louis, Missouri, and graduated therefrom with high honors. Soon after he was commissioned as an Assistant Surgeon in the U.S. Army, and in that capacity served in Colorado and Kansas. He, however, resigned this position on the breaking out of the rebellion and went to Colorado, where, on account of his Southern sympathies he was arrested and for awhile imprisoned in Denver. Upon being released he went to New Mexico, and from thence in 1862 came to Montana, stopping first in Bannack, where he entered upon the practice of medicine. He afterwards moved to Virginia City, and in 1866 came to Helena, where he has since made his home. Several years ago he married a daughter of Wellington Stewart, formerly a member of the Montana bar. The deceased leaves a wife and three children, who are now residing at Carson city, Nevada. For the past three years Dr. Glick has been in poor health, and has given but little attention to his profession, spending a large portion of his time in California and Nevada. The deceased, while in health, had a reputation as a physician and surgeon coextensive with the Territory. His many noble traits of character won for him a host of warm friends, who will cherish and honor his memory.


Missoula City Cemetery, established 1884

Cemetery History

The present Missoula Cemetery, located 3 miles Northwest of the City’s center, was first surveyed and platted by H. V. Wheeler, who filed the official plat in Missoula County on the 21st day of January, 1885, under the direction of a corporation known as the “Missoula Valley Improvement Company,” consisting of Judge Frank H. Woody, W. H. H. Dickinson, T. C. Marshall and Dr. Isidore Kohn. They bought 16 acres of land from the Northern Pacific for $168. F. S. Worden and A. B. Hammond became owners later. In 1901, the City Council passed an ordinance accepting the cemetery for $1 and provided for a Board of Trustees, consisting of six members. The biggest sale of graves came in 1903, as the Northern Pacific Railway purchased two blocks, with nearly 400 graves sites. The immediate reason was that the railway company could move about 100 bodies of Japanese laborers who had been buried by the company at Plains. Many of these burials are not marked and about 25 have stones with Japanese writing. For the past four years, relatives of these workers from Japan have visited these graves. It is estimated this is the largest cemetery in Western Montana. Many well known Missoula residents such as Greenough, McCormick, Hammond, McLeod, Paxson, Rankin, Woody, Toole, Brooks, Bonner, Pattee, Kohn, Dickinson, Bell, Higgins and Worden are slumbering here.

LastName

FirstName

Age

DOD

Grave

Lot

Block

Interment #

Abbey

Edna M

55

1/28/1951

5

3

10

9492

Abbey

Irl Francis

71

10/25/1966

6

6

30A

13447

Abbey

James Edward

69

3/6/1927

2

8

42

4095

Abbey

Noetta Bertha

60

2/6/1967

5

6

30A

13559

Abbey

Samuel B

57

2/4/1951

6

3

10

9494

Morgan

Alma May

100

3/24/1985

1

22

50A

16945

Morgan

Arthur R

44

7/19/1948

2

9

3A

8826

Morgan

Billie L

95

3/21/1988

5

10

5A

17396

Morgan

Carl Roy

29

11/21/1914

7

13

4

1967

Morgan

Cheryl Ann

3 mos

1/4/1955

3

26

56A

10522

Morgan

Claude

55

12/25/1955

1

7

3A

10770

Morgan

Cora May

89

9/9/1968

7

16

9A

13852

Morgan

Dan

69

9/4/1966

1

17

57A

13406

Morgan

Dora A

25

4/13/1910

1

14

68

1271

Morgan

Edward

27

2/27/1918

5

115

63

2492

Morgan

Eleanor Vera Glee

2 yrs

2/7/1924

8

131

63

3551

Morgan

Ernest W

65

8/2/1965

7

5

10

13150

Morgan

Freda

21

3/9/1922

2

13

6A

3196

Morgan

George C

57

2/28/1916

8

13

4

2182

Morgan

Henry Norton

94

8/2/1957

6

5

10

11184

Morgan

Henry Walter

79

10/20/1949

8

16

9A

9141

Morgan

James C Jr

56

11/11/1970

7

22

50A

14362

Morgan

James C Sr

95

12/11/1970

2

22

50A

14423

Morgan

Mary

1 hrs

3/28/1964

9

39

41A

12829

Morgan

Michael N

6 mos

3/8/1982

2

2

41A

16462

Morgan

Orphia

72

1/2/1943

5

5

10

7435

Morgan

Randall Arthur

9 days

5/28/1928

2

20

55A

4311

Morgan

Raymond R

6 mos

2/22/1927

1

48

55A

4093

Morgan

Steven J

25

4/26/1974

8

22

50A

15079

Morgan

Thomas C Jr

1 mos

12/10/1918

4

22

55A

2666

Morgan

Thomas E

63

11/6/1937

2

14

68

6305

Morgan

William Wallace

62

3/10/1976

8

12

22B

15452